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Ascomycetes on bryophytes: systematics and biology

Figures


Fig. 1. Acrospermum adeanum on moribund pleurocarpous moss. Several cylindrical to claviform ascomata with white aerial hyphae at the base.



Fig. 2. Acrospermum adeanum. Infections causing irregular discoloured patches on corticolous pleurocarpous moss; on the right an infection where the oldest part is almost completely decomposed.



Fig. 3. Bryocentria brongniartii on Frullania dilatata. Apex of perithecium with punctiform ostiole in the centre (not visible here) seen from the dorsal leaf side, leaf's cell net irregularly torn, proper perithecium on the ventral leaf side, its surface out of the focus.



Fig. 4. Bryocentria metzgeriae on Radula complanata. About 20 light orange coloured leaf-perforating perithecia on the yellowish discoloured, dead host (dorsal view); apices of perithecia slightly protruding. Note the white pollen grains of Pinus.



Fig. 5. Bryochiton perpusillus on Polytrichum piliferum. Scattered minute ascomata on the abaxial side of upper leaf parts; no visible damage caused by the fungus.



Fig. 6. Bryochiton perpusillus on Polytrichum piliferum. Transverse section of leaf, hyphae subcuticular or within the outermost walls of the abaxial epidermis cells; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 7. Bryorella cryptocarpa on Polytrichastrum alpinum. Ascomata with large light ostiolar regions completely immersed between the leaf lamellae, seen from above. The ascomata are only slightly compressed laterally. Note the upturned orientation of the ascomata towards the incidental light source.



Fig. 8. Dawsophila polycarpa on Polytrichadelphus magellanics. Several minute brown ascomata between the leaf lamellae, seen from above.



Fig. 9. Epibryon endocarpum on Plagiochila asplenioides. Three leaf cells each enclosing one mature ascoma; leaf coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 10. Magnification of fig. 9.
The ascomata form a hole in the dorsal periclinal cell wall in order to liberate the spores.



Fig. 11. Epibryon plagiochilae on Plagiochila asplenioides. About ten black ascomata with bristles on the dorsal leaf surface; infection without visible symptoms.



Fig. 12. Lizonia sexangularis on Polytrichastrum sexangulare. Many asomata densely aggregated within an antheridial cup forming a pseudostromatic plate.



Fig. 13. Octospora sp. on Bryum argenteum. Hyphae infect the underground rhizoids.



Fig. 14. Octosporella hemicrypta on Frullania sp. Several light orange coloured perithecia-like ascomata between the host leaves.



Fig. 15. Potriphila navicularis on Polytrichastrum alpinum. Five laterally compressed ascomata between the leaf lamellae, seen from above.



Fig. 16. The same as fig. 15, but anamorph; strongly laterally compressed pycnidia on a green unaltered leaf; punctiform ostiole not visible; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 17. Stenocybe nitida on Plagiochila exigua. Note the dark spore masses at the top of the two ascomata.



Fig. 18. Unknown fungus on Gymnostomum viridulum. Artificially opened epigonium filled with fungal spores that have completely replaced the sporophytes (Photo J. Eckstein).



Fig. 19. Bryodiscus arctoalpinus on Polytrichastrum sexangulare. Some fruit body-bearing plants intermingled with the principal host Andreaea nivalis.



Fig. 20. Potriphila neurogena on Polytrichadelphus magellanicus. Transverse leaf section with two ascomata immersed within the nerve, apices abaxially protruding. Note the disintegrating structure of the nerve; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 21. Rogellia nectrioidea on Polytrichadelphus magellanicus. Transverse leaf section showing a colourless ascoma immersed within the leaf nerve, abaxial epidermis torn and eroding, leaf nerve in decomposition; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 22. Bryonectria phyllogena on Polytrichum juniperinum. Transverse leaf section with a large perithecium sitting on the lamellae; mycelium interlamellar; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 23. Epibryon hypophyllum on Radula complanata. Leaf-perforating ascoma seen from the dorsal side; proper perithecium on the ventral leaf side, its surface out of the focus. Note that only one cell of the host leaf is destroyed.



Fig. 24. Octosporella erythrostigma on Frullania dilatata. Section through appressorium and leaf cells, the infected one with an intracellular haustorium. Note the delicate perforation on the periclinal host wall connecting appressorium and haustorium; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 25. Gynonectria intraspora on Odontolejeunea sp. Longitudinal section of an infected perianth showing an immature sporophyte already differentiated into a foot (with transfer cells), seta and capsule, hyphae in a dense layer in the natural fissure between embryo and calyptra, gametophytic cells below the foot almost completely replaced by fungal pseudo-tissue with a fringed margin, hyphae also between the embryo cells; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 26. Bryostroma trichostomi on Pottiaceae. Transverse section through a leaf showing hyphae within the anticlinal cell walls of the lamina and within the cell corners of the nerve; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.



Fig. 27. Epibryon hepaticola on Frullania tamarisci. Globose, dark coloured ascomata situated at the border of the ventral leaf side, partly completely covered by the leaf, partly a little protruding; infection without visible symptoms.


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Fig. 28. Dawsophila polycarpa on Polytrichadelphus magellanicus. Transverse section of a leaf with a mature ascoma at the right of a lamellar end cell. Note the ascus inside; the triangular form corresponds to the space between two adjacent end cells; coloured with lactophenol cotton-blue.