Dr. Andreas Fleischmann

Research assistant

Phone: +49-89-17861-240
Fax: +49-89-172638

Research Interests

Current projects


Editorial and consultant work

Research interests

  • Systematics and evolution of carnivorous plant families (especially Droseraceae and Lentibulariaceae)
  • Flora of the Guayana Highlands (especially Droseraceae, Lentibulariaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Polygala, Xyris, Burmannia)
  • Biology of parasitic plants (especially Orobanchaceae and Cuscuta) and mycoheterotrophic plants (especially   Burmanniaceae and Gentianaceae)
  • Palaeobotany and palaeomycology
  • Biology and systematics of the genus Drosera

Current projects

  • Phylogenetic relationships, systematics and biology of carnivorous Lamiales, with special focus on the genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae). In cooperation with Prof. Kai Müller, Evolution and Biodiverstiy of Plants, Universtiy Münster. The resulting dissertation of AF was funded by the graduate funding of the Universität Bayern (Stipendium nach dem Bayerischen Eliteförderungsgesetz (BayEFG)).
  • Systematics and taxomony of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae)
  • Systematics and evolution of the genus Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae)
  • Scents in carnivorous plants (cooperation with Dr. Boris Schlumpberger, Munich and Dr. Andreas Jürgens, Pietermaritzburg)
  • Treatment of Lentibulariaceae for the "Flore du Gabon", with Marc Sosef (National Botanic Garden of Belgium) and Eberhard Fischer (University of Koblenz).
  • Contributor to the 96th, edited volume of the German flora field guide "Schmeil-Fitschen: Flora von Deutschland".



  • Sadowski, E.M., Seyfullah, L.J., Sadowski, F., Fleischmann, A., Behling, H. & Schmidt, A.R. (2015). Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber. PNAS 112 (1): 190-195.
  • Fleischmann, A. (2015). The intricate Pinguicula crystallina/hirtiflora-complex. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 44: 48-61.
  • Wong, W.O., Dilcher, D.L., Labandeira, C.C., Sun, G. & Fleischmann, A. (2015). Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm. Frontiers in Plant Science 6:326. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00326
  • Fleischmann, A. (2015). Taxonomic Utricularia news. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 44: 13-16.


  • Fleischmann, A., Michael, T.P., Rivadavia, F., Sousa, A., Wang, W., Temsch, E.M., Greilhuber, J., Müller, K.F. & Heubl, G. (2014). Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms. Annals of Botany 114: 1651-1663.
  • Fleischmann, A. & Schlauer, J. (2014). Die Gattung Utricularia in Bayern. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 84: 65-90.
  • Fleischmann, A. & Duno de Stefano, R. (2014). Droseraceae. In: Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M. & Beck, S.G. (eds.), Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 572.
  • Plachno, B., Wolowski, K., Fleischmann, A., Lowrie, A. & Lukaszek, M. (2014). Algae and prey associated with traps of the Australian carnivorous plant Utricularia volubilis (Lentibulariaceae: Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx) in natural habitat and in cultivation. Australian Journal of Botany 62: 528-536.
  • Rivadavia, F., Gonella, P.M., Sano, P.T. & Fleischmann, A. (2014). Elucidating the controversial Drosera montana complex (Droseraceae): a taxonomic revision. Phytotaxa 172: 141-175.
  • Costa, J., Rodrigues, C.L., Filho, A.S., Buys, S.C., Fleischmann, A. & Rivadavia, F. (2014). Arthropods associated with the carnivorous plant Drosera latifolia (Droseraceae) in an area of Atlantic Forest (southeastern Brazil). Acta Biológica Paranaense 43: 61-68.
  • Gonella, P.M., Rivadavia, F., Sano, P.T. & Fleischmann, A. (2014). Exhuming Saint-Hilaire: revision of the Drosera villosa complex (Droseraceae) supports 200 year-old neglected species concepts. Phytotaxa 156: 1-40.


  • Fleischmann, A. (2013). Orobanche elatior in Bayern. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 83: 187-191.
  • Fleischmann, A. (2013). Drosera ericgreenii - Eric Green's sundew. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 42: 83-86.
  • Rivadavia, F., Gonella, P.M. & Fleischmann, A. (2013). A new and tuberous species of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) from the campos rupestres of Brazil. Systematic Botany 38: 464-470. [request for pdf]


  • Fleischmann, A. (2012). Monograph of the genus Genlisea. Redfern Natural History Productions Ltd., Poole. 727 pp.
  • Scheunert, A., Fleischmann, A. Olano-Marín, C.,  Bräuchler C. & Heubl G. (2012). Phylogeny of the tribe Rhinantheae (Orobanchaceae) with focus on biogeography, cytology and re-examination of generic concepts. Taxon 61: 1269-1285. [pdf]
  • Rivadavia, F., Miranda, V.F.O., Hoogenstrijd, G., Pinheiro, F., Heubl, G. & Fleischmann, A. (2012). Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America. Annals of Botany 110: 11-21. [online article]
  • Fleischmann, A. (2012). The new Utricularia species described since Peter Taylor's monograph. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41: 67-76. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A. (2012). Philcoxia - a new genus of carnivorous plant. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41: 77-81.


  • Fleischmann, A., Grande, J.R. (2011). Taxonomía de Heliamphora minor Gleason (Sarraceniaceae) en el Auyán-tepui, incluyendo una nueva variedad. Acta Botánica Venezuelica 34: 1-11. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A., Rivadavia, F., Gonella, P.M., Heubl, G. (2011). A revision of Genlisea subgenus Tayloria (Lentibulariaceae). Phytotaxa 33: 1-40. [request for pdf]
  • McPherson, S., Wistuba, A., Fleischmann, A., Nerz, J. (2011). Sarraceniaceae of South America. Redfern Natural History Productions Ltd., Poole. 562 pp.
  • Fleischmann, A. (2011). Do we have any evidence that any plants have given up carnivory? Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 40: 37.
  • McPherson, S., Bourke, G., Fleischmann, A., Robinson, A.S., & Jaunzems, M. (2011). A new pitcher plant from Palawan: Nepenthes leonardoi. Carniflora Australis 8: 4-9.
  • Fleischmann, A., Robinson, A.S., McPherson, S., Heinrich, V., Gironella, E., & Madulid, D.A. (2011). Drosera ultramafica (Droseraceae), a new sundew species of the ultramafic flora of the Malesian highlands. Blumea 56: 10-15. [pdf]


  • Schäferhoff, B., Fleischmann, A., Fischer, E., Albach, D.C., Borsch, T., Heubl, G. & Müller, K.F. (2010). Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 352-374. [online article]
  • Merckx, V., Stöckel, M., Fleischmann, A., Bruns, T.D., & Gebauer, G. (2010). 15N and 13C natural abundance of two mycoheterotrophic and a putative partially mycoheterotrophic species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 188(2): 590-596. [online article]
  • Fleischmann, A. (2010). Corkscrew plants: Genlisea. pp. 1104-1141 in: McPherson, S.: Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats, 2 (eds. Fleischmann, A., Robinson, A.S.). Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • Fleischmann, A. (2010). Bladderworts: Utricularia. pp. 1142-1227 in: McPherson, S.: Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats, 2 (eds. Fleischmann, A., Robinson, A.S.). Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • Fleischmann, A. (2010). Evolution of Carnivorous Plants. pp. 68-123 in: McPherson, S.: Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats, 1 (eds. Fleischmann, A., Robinson, A.S.). Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • Fleischmann, A., Schäferhoff, B., Heubl, G., Rivadavia, F., Barthlott, W. & Müller, K.F. (2010). Phylogenetics and character evolution in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea A. St.-Hil. (Lentibulariaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 768-783. [doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.03.009]
  • Fleischmann, A. (2010). La coltivazione del genere Genlisea. AIPC Magazine 17: 22-25.
  • Fleischmann, A. & McPherson, S. (2010). Some ecological notes on Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae) from Ptari-tepui. Carniflora Australis 7(2): 19-31.


  • Fleischmann, A., Wistuba, A., Nerz, J. (2009). Three new species of Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae) from the Guayana Highlands of Venezuela. Willdenowia 39(2): 273-283. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A. & Heubl, G. (2009). Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 66(2): 209-215. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A. (2009). Coltivare le drosere sudamericane. AIPC Magazine 15: 22-30.
  • Rivadavia, F., Vicentini, A. & Fleischmann, A. (2009). A new species of sundew (Drosera, Droseraceae), with water-dispersed seed, from the floodplains of the northern Amazon basin, Brazil. Ecotropica 15: 13-21. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A. & Rivadavia, F. (2009). Utricularia rostrata (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64(1): 155-159. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A. & Lee, C.C. (2009). A new variety of Drosera spatulata (Droseraceae) from Sarawak, Borneo. Carniv. Pl. Newslett. 38(1):4-9. [online article]
  • Robinson, A.S., Fleischmann, A., McPherson, S., Heinrich, V., Gironella, E.P. & Pena, C.Q. (2009). A spectacular new species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae) pitcher plant from central Palawan, Philippines. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159(2): 195-202. [pdf]


  • Fleischmann, A., Gibson, R. & Rivadavia, F. (2008). Drosera ericgreenii (Droseraceae), a new species from the fynbos of South Africa. Bothalia 38(2): 141-144. [request for pdf]
  • Beck, S. G., Fleischmann, A., Huaylla, H., Müller, K. F. & Borsch, T. (2008). Pinguicula chuquisacensis (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the Bolivian Andes, and first insights on phylogenetic relationships among South American Pinguicula. Willdenowia 38(1): 201-212. [pdf]


  • Fleischmann, A., Krings, M., Mayr, H. & Agerer, R. (2007). Structurally preserved polypores from the Neogene of North Africa: Ganodermites lybicus gen. et sp. nov. (Polyporales, Ganodermataceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 145: 159-172. [request for pdf]
  • Wistuba, A., Nerz, J. & Fleischmann, A. (2007). Nepenthes flava, a new species of Nepenthaceae from the northern part of Sumatra. Blumea 52(1): 159-163. [pdf]
  • Fleischmann, A. (2007). Karnivoren in der Gran Sabana Venezuelas (Teil 1). Das Taublatt 59(3): 26-43.
  • Fleischmann, A., Wistuba, A. & McPherson, S. (2007).  Drosera solaris (Droseraceae), a new sundew from the Guayana Highlands. Willdenowia 37(2): 551-555. [pdf]

Oral presentations:

  • 11.02.2014: "Parasitische Blütenpflanzen: Leben auf Kosten anderer". Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, Munich.
  • 09.01.2014: "Faszinierende Welt der fleischfressenden Pflanzen". Basler Botanische Gesellschaft, Basel.
  • 08.11.2013: "Evolution of carnivory in flowering plants". Botanisches Kolloquium, Nees-Institute for Biodiverstiy of Plants, Bonn.
  • 07.11.2013: "Die Tafelberge Venezuelas - Inseln im Nebel". Vortragsreihe Freundeskreis der Botanischen Gärten, Universität Bonn.
  • 10.07.2013: "Phylogeny of tribe Rhinantheae (Orobanchaceae) with a focus on biogeography, cytology, and re-examination of generic concepts". Evolution and Systematics of Plants & Fungi, Systematic Botany, Munich.
  • 12.08.2012: "A taxonomic review of the genus Genlisea". 9th International Carnivorous Plant Conference, Seekonk, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 26.07.2012: "Evolution of carnivory in angiosperms." Institutsseminar, Institut Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie und Biophysik, Universität Würzburg.
  • 06.12.2011: "Die faszinierende Welt der fleischfressenden Pflanzen". Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, Munich.
  • 07.08.2010: "Threats and conservation of carnivorous plants in South Africa". 8th International Carnivorous Plant Conference, Leiden Botanical Garden, Netherlands.
  • 23.01.2009: "El género Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae) - la morfología y datos moleculares". Fundacíon Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas.
  • 10.12.2008: "Relationships of and within Lentibulariaceae". Evolution and Systematics of Plants & Fungi, Systematic Botany, Munich.
  • 27.09.2008: "Carnivorous Plants of the Cape Province, South Africa". International Carnivorous Plant Conference 2008, Sydney, Australia
  • 20.09.2008: "Drosera species of South America" and "Carnivorous Plants in tropical Africa (Zambia and Sierra Leone)". European Carnivorous Plants Exhibition and Exchange 2008, Mira (Venice), Italy.
  • 08.04.2008: "Phylogeny of the genus Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae) with special focus on biogeography and character evolution". Systematics 2008, Göttingen.
  • 08.09.2007: "Karnivoren Südafrikas". Annual Meeting of the German Carnivorous Plant Society G.F.P. eV 2007, Frankfurt.
  • 25.03.2007: "Karnivoren des tropischen Afrika". Meeting of the German Carnivorous Plant Society G.F.P. eV 2007, Bonn.
  • 26.03.2006: "Karnivoren Thailands". Meeting of the German Carnivorous Plant Society G.F.P. eV 2006, Bonn.
  • 13.12.2005: "Die Tafelberge Venezuelas - Eine vergessene Welt". Meeting of the Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, Munich.
  • 25.06.2005: "Karnivoren Venezuelas". Annual Meeting of the German Carnivorous Plant Society G.F.P. eV 2005, Meddersheim.


Editorial and consultant work

Editor for:

  • McPherson, S. 2010. Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats (eds. Fleischmann, A., Robinson, A.S.). Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • McPherson, S. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World - Vol. 1 (eds. A. Robinson & A. Fleischmann). Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • McPherson, S. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World - Vol. 2 (eds. A. Robinson & A. Fleischmann). Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.

Scientific consultant for:

  • Carow, Th. 2009. Karnivoren - Die Welt der fleischfressenden Pflanzen. Kosmos, Stuttgart.
  • McPherson, S. 2008. Glistening Carnivores: The Sticky-leaved Insect-eating Plants. Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • McPherson, S. 2008. The lost worlds of the Guiana Highlands. Redfern Natural History Publications Ltd, Dorset.
  • Carow, Th. 2005. Fleischfressende Pflanzen. Kosmos, Stuttgart.


Sytematics and evolution of the genus Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae)



© A. Fleischmann



Heliamphora nutans, Roraima Tepui

The genus Heliamphora belongs to the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae (Ericales) and comprises 23 species, of which eleven have been described in the past seven years (Fleischmann et al., 2009). All of them are fibrous-rooted herbs with inflated, tubular pitcher-like leaves. The general habit is a lax rosette of leaves, although two species may develop monopodial stems up to 4 m tall (Berry et al., 2005; Maguire 1978).

The carnivorous pitcher leaves of Heliamphora are usually broadly tubular, widening from a ventricose lower part to a tubular or flaring upper part (pitcher mouth), usually with a notable constriction between those two parts. The pitchers may reach 5—50 cm in height, depending on species and growth conditions (plants growing in more shaded conditions usually develop taller and wider pitchers compared to individuals exposed to full sunlight). The pitcher appendage (lid) varies considerably between different species: generally, it’s more or less spoon or helmet-shaped and held over the elliptic pitcher mouth; but some species bear a ligulate-oblong, upright appendage, whereas in one species, H. folliculata, a unique lid that serves as nectar reservoir has evolved. In H. sarracenioides and H. exappendiculata, the lid is not developed or strongly reduced. Existing taxonomic concepts are mainly based on the variable morphological characters of shape and size of pitcher and lid, as well as on the number and length of anthers and the distribution and size of the retrorse hairs on the internal pitcher surface (Berry et al., 2005; Steyermark, 1984; Maguire, 1978).

The unique, isolated distribution of the genus on the remote and quite inaccessable table mountain plateaus (tepuis) of the Venezuelan Guayana, and therefore a rather poor collection history of the genus, as well as the lack of stable morphological characters for a suitable species delimination were the main reasons for the poverty of taxonomical work on Heliamphora (Steyermark, 1984; Maguire, 1978; Steyermark, 1951).

The aims of my studies were to investigate the deliminations and phylogenetic relationships of all known species of Heliamphora using molecular sequence data, to compare the results with the morphology-based species concepts proposed for the genus (Steyermark, 1984; Maguire, 1978), and to infer the origin and biogeographic distribution of Heliamphora, as well as the evolution of chromosome numbers (Fleischmann et al., in prep.).


  • BERRY, P.E., R. RIINA &  J.A. STEYERMARK (2005): Sarraceniaceae. In: Steyermark, J.A., P.E. Berry, K. Yatskievych & B.K. Holst (Eds.): Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana - Volume 9. Missouri Botanical Garden, USA.
  • FLEISCHMANN, A., WISTUBA, A. & J. NERZ (2009): Three new species of Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae) from the Guayana Highlands of Venezuela. Willdenowia 39 (2): 273-283.
  • MAGUIRE, B. (1978): Sarraceniaceae, in: The Botany of the Guayana Highland - Part X. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 29: 36 - 62.
  • STEYERMARK, J.A. (1951): Botanical Exploration in Venezuela - 1. Fieldiana: Botany 28 (1): 239-242.
  • STEYERMARK, J.A. (1984): Venezuelan Guayana. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71: 302-312.


Genlisea A. St.-Hil.



© A. Fleischmann



Genlisea margaretae (Zambia, loc. classicus)

The genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) consists of 29 species currently recognised, which are small annual or (more frequently) perennial herbs. They usually grow in open exposed habitats poor in nutrients, sometimes as submerged aquatics, but usually as rosetted terrestrials. All species of Genlisea lack roots, but produce two different kinds of leaves: the green leaves above ground are usually spatulate or broadly lanceolate and arranged in a dense rosette. The pale, achlorophyllous subterraneous leaves (rhizophylls) are Y-shaped and end in two helically twisted arms. They attract and digest soil protozoa (Barthlott et al., 1998) and small invertebrates (Plachno et al., 2005; Studnicka, 2003), which enter the rhizophylls and are caught by retrose trichomes.
The two subgenera proposed for Genlisea (Fischer et al., 2000, based on the taxonomic section concept of Fromm-Trinta, 1977) can be distinguished by the dehiscence of the capsules: While in members of subgenus Tayloria the capsule opens septicidally, subgenus Genlisea displays a circumsessile opening (with capsules occasionally open spirally, which is a very rare feature in the plant kingdom). Main characters for species delimination are the shape of the corolla and the distribution pattern of glandular and non-glandular hairs on scape, sepals and capsule.
Subgenus Tayloria comprises three species endemic to the highlands of northeastern Brazil, members of subgenus Genlisea are found both in South America and tropical Africa, with one species ranging to Madagascar.


  • BARTHLOTT, W., POREMBSKI, S., FISCHER, E., GEMMEL, B. (1998): First protozoa-trapping plant found. Nature 392: 447.
  • FISCHER, E., POREMBSKI, S., BARTHLOTT, W. (2000): Revision of the genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) in Africa and Madagascar with notes on ecology and phytogeography. Nordic Journal of Botany 20: 291-318.
  • FROMM-TRINTA, E. (1977): Tayloria Fromm-Trinta - Nova Seca do genere Genlisea St.-Hil. Boletim do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro, Botanica 44: 1-4.
  • PLACHNO, B.J., ADAMUS, K., FABER, J. & KOZOLOWSKI, J. (2005): Feeding behaviour of carnivorous Genlisea plants in the laboratory. Acta Botanica Gallica 152: 159-164.
  • STUDNICKA, M. (2003): Observations on life strategies of Genlisea, Heliamphora and Utricularia in natural habitats. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 32: 57-61.